IJIRST journal published this paper in our journal. This paper is for civil engineering student.
Title: A Study on Strength and Durability Characteristics of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Laterite Sand
Abstract: The upturn in prices of materials for building construction is causing a lot of concern due to more utilization of building materials such as fine aggregate, coarse aggregate for the construction of structures, creating need for research into original materials as alternatives in building and rural infrastructures. Research efforts are directed towards enhancing the use of locally and readily available material such as lateritic soils for the construction. This study presents, the results of an experimental program to study the strength and durability performance of laterized concrete. A total of 108 cubes of 150mm, 108 cylinders 150mm dia X 300mm height and 81 prisms of 100 X100 X 500 mm dimensions were casted and cured in water as well as chemical solution for 7, 28, 60, and 90 days. Laterized concrete is concrete in which some or all of the fine aggregate is from laterite. To perform this investigation, M30 grade concrete is used, mix proportions 1: 1.274: 3.126 (Cement: sand/laterite: granite) with water/cement ratio of 0.45 was used. In this investigation, percentage laterite content (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) exposure periods of 7, 28, 60, and 90 days on the compressive, flexure and splitting tensile strength tests of laterized concrete were investigated and also the effect of varying percentages of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) concentrations 1%, 3% and 5%, exposure periods of 7, 28, 60, and 90 days on the compressive, flexure and splitting tensile strength tests of laterized concrete were investigated. Data results revealed that the laterite fines used could satisfactorily replace the sand up to 30%. By fixing the laterite content as 30% of fine aggregate, the specimens are tested for durability studies under chemical attack. The specimens are immersed in H2SO4 solution for concentrations of 1%, 3%, 5% for an exposure period of 7, 28, 60 & 90 days, and the strengths of concrete at these ages were investigated.
Keywords: Concrete, Laterite Sand, Laterized Concrete, Sulphuric Acid, Tests
Concrete is the most commonly used construction factual in India and other countries also. It is tough to point out another material of construction which is as adaptable as concrete. It is the material of choice where strength, flexural structure, better workability, performance, durability, impermeability, fire resistance and abrasion resistance are required. Cement concrete is one of the outwardly simple but actually complex materials. Many of its compound behaviors are yet to be identified to employ this material advantageously and frugally.
Concrete is so closely related with every construction activity that it touches every human being in his day to day living. It is an artificial compound generally made by mixing of binding material(Cement), fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, water and admixtures in suitable proportions. Concrete does not solidify from drying after mixing and placement; the water reacts with the cement in a chemical process known as hydration. In India the annual consumption of cement is in the order of approximately 22 million tons. Concrete is a site-made material unlike other materials of construction and as such can vary to a very great extent in its quality, properties and performance due to the use of natural materials except cement. From materials of varying properties, to make concrete of stipulated qualities, an intimate knowledge of the interaction of various ingredients that go into the making of concrete is required to be known, both in the fresh and hardened conditions. This knowledge is necessary for concrete technologists as well as for site engineers. The increased demand for the usage of the huge quantity of concrete leads to increase in cost of binding material (cement) and depletion of natural sources of fine aggregate which in turn increases cost of concrete. Due to above cause alternative materials are required to partially or fully replacement for portland cement or fine aggregate or coarse aggregate in the concrete mixture to continue the construction work, without changing the previous properties of the concrete like strength, workability and durability. Laterite is a product of intense sub aerial weathering. Laterisation process involves leaching of alkalis, basis and silica with complimentary enrichment of alumina, iron and some trace elements.
II. Review of literature
Felix F. Udoeyo, Udeme H. Iron, Obasi O. Odim et all are conducted an experimental program to investigate some characteristics of concrete containing laterite as a partial or fullreplacement of sand is presented in this paper. Sand in a concrete of mix ratio 1:2:4:0.56 (cement:sand:coarse aggregate:water-cementratio) was replaced with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% laterite. The results show that concrete with up to 40% replacementlevel of sand by laterite attained the designed strength of 20 N/mm2, thus indicating the possibility of using laterite as a partial replacement for sand up to this level. It was also observed from the results that the workability of laterite concrete (LATCON) increases with increase in the replacement level of sand by laterite, while the compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths and the percentage water absorption of the concrete decrease with increase in the replacement level of sand.
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