**Paper Title:- Evaluation of Response Reduction Factor using Nonlinear Analysis**

**Author Name:- Tia Toby, Ajesh K. Kottuppillil**

**Department of Civil Engineering**

Abstract:- The main objective of the study is to evaluate the response reduction factor of RC frames. We know that the actual earthquake force is considerably higher than what the structures are designed for. The structures can’t be designed for the actual value of earthquake intensity as the cost of construction will be too high. The actual intensity of earthquake is reduced by a factor called response reduction factor R. The value of R depends on ductility factor, strength factor, structural redundancy and damping. The concept of R factor is based on the observations that well detailed seismic framing systems can sustain large inelastic deformation without collapse and have excess of lateral strength over design strength. Here the nonlinear static analysis is conducted on regular and irregular RC frames considering OMRF and SMRF to calculate the response reduction factor and the codal provisions for the same is critically evaluated.

**Keywords: **Response Reduction Factor, Ductility Factor, Strength Factor, Nonlinear Analysis, Regular and Irregular Frames, OMRF, SMRF

# I. Introduction

The devastating potential of an earthquake can have major consequences on infrastructures and lifelines. In the past few years, the earthquake engineering community has been reassessing its procedures, in the wake of devastating earthquakes which have caused extensive damage, loss of life and property. These procedures involve assessment of seismic force demands on the structure and then developing design procedures for the structure to withstand the applied actions Seismic design follows the same procedure, except for the fact that inelastic deformations may be utilized to absorb certain levels of energy leading to reduction in the forces for which structures are designed. This leads to the creation of the Response Modification Factor (R factor); the all-important parameter that accounts for over-strength, energy absorption and dissipation as well as structural capacity to redistribute forces from inelastic highly stressed regions to other less stressed locations in the structure. This factor is unique and different for different type of structures and materials used. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the response reduction factor of a RC frame designed and detailed as per Indian standards IS 456, IS 1893 and IS 13920.The codal provisions for the same will be critically evaluated. Moreover parametric studies will be done on both regular and irregular buildings and finally a comparison of R value between OMRF and SMRF is also done.

# II. Definition of r factor and its components

During an earthquake, the structures may experience certain inelasticity, the R factor defines the levels of inelasticity. The R factor is allowed to reflect a structures capability of dissipating energy via inelastic behavior. The statically determinate structures response to stress will be linear until yielding takes place. But the behavioral change in structure from elastic to inelastic occurs as the yielding prevails and linear elastic structural analysis can no longer be applied. The seismic energy exerted by the structure is too high which makes the cost of designing a structure based on elastic spectrum too high. To reduce the seismic loads, IS 1893 introduces a “response reduction factor” R. So in order to obtain the exact response, it is recommended to perform Nonlinear analysis. In actual speaking R factor is a measure of over strength and redundancy. It may be defined as a function of various parameters of the structural system, such as strength, ductility, damping and redundancy.

For More Information Click Here